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Professionals Made in Germany: Employing a Turkish Migration Background in High-Status Positions

Professionals Made in Germany: Employing a Turkish Migration Background in High-Status Positions

Ali Konyali & Maurice Crul in Social Inclusion 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1. This article emphasises the experiences of the prospective elite among the second generation in Germany by analysing empirical data collected through in-depth interviews across three occupational fields: law, education and corporate business.

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Date added: 04.01.2017 Date modified: 04.01.2017 Filesize: 289.65 kB Downloads: 122
How to reach the top? Fields, forms of capital, and strategies in accessing leadership positions in France among descendants of migrants from Turkey

How to reach the top? Fields, forms of capital, and strategies in accessing leadership positions in France among descendants of migrants from Turkey

Elif Keskiner & Maurice Crul (ERS Special Issue 2017) explore the experiences of highly educated descendants of migrants from Turkey when achieving leading positions in the corporate business, education, and law sectors in France. They illustrate the forms of capital and strategies that are considered significant for accessing leadership positions in these sectors, and how experiences vary across different fields and illuminate the various strategies pursued by descendants of migrants from Turkey in their pathways to attaining leadership positions, and suggests how similar forms of capital work in distinct ways across different sectors.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/

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Date added: 02.13.2017 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.45 MB Downloads: 177
The multiplier effect: how the accumulation of cultural and social capital explains steep upward social mobility of children of low-educated immigrants

The multiplier effect: how the accumulation of cultural and social capital explains steep upward social mobility of children of low-educated immigrants

Maurice Crul, Jens Schneider, Elif Keskiner & Frans Lelie (2016) Concluding article of the Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies.

We introduce what we have coined the multiplier effect. We explain the steep upward mobility of children of low-educated immigrants by studying how they overcome obstacles on their regular pathway, via alternative routes or through loopholes in the education and labour market system. The idea of the multiplier effect is that they virtually propel themselves forward in their careers. Essential is that each successful step forward offers new possibilities on which they build, thereby accumulating cultural and social capital and multiplying their chances of success. Initial small differences with their less successful co-ethnic peers generate an increasingly wider gap over time. Cultural and social capital theories primarily explain the reproduction of inequalities in society. The multiplier effect explains the breaking of the perpetual cycle of this reproduction, enabling steep upward mobility even when this group does not initially possess the right cultural and social capital to be successful.

Also in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/

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Date added: 11.15.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.11 MB Downloads: 454
The upcoming new elite among children of immigrants: a cross-country and cross-sector comparison

The upcoming new elite among children of immigrants: a cross-country and cross-sector comparison

Maurice Crul, Elif Keskiner & Frans Lelie (2016) Introduction to the Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies.

The European-born children of immigrants, often referred to as the second generation, play an important role in the academic debate about integration and assimilation. The successful second generation, defined in terms of possessing a higher education diploma and or professional position, receives increasing attention. In this special issue, we will look at the most successful group: the upcoming "elite" among the descendants of migrants from Turkey,
based on data gathered in the ELITES, Pathways to Success project. In this research project we deliberately selected on the dependent variable: being professionally successful in managerial jobs in the corporate business sector, the corporate law sector and the education sector. 

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/

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Date added: 11.15.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.29 MB Downloads: 343
Practices of change in the education sector: professionals dealing with ethnic school segregation

Practices of change in the education sector: professionals dealing with ethnic school segregation

Ismintha Waldring (2016) in the Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies.

This article looks at professionals in the education sector in Sweden, France and the Netherlands, whose parents were born in Turkey. In their stories, ethnic school segregation appears as an important topic that coincides with other inequalities in society and signals educational injustice. This so-called wicked problem is used to understand how second-generation professionals assert influence in their quest for educational change.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/

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Date added: 11.15.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.07 MB Downloads: 393
International opportunities on the way up: alternative career paths of descendants of migrants from Turkey in the field of professional business services

International opportunities on the way up: alternative career paths of descendants of migrants from Turkey in the field of professional business services

Ali Konyali (2016) in the Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies.

Through in-depth interviews with upwardly mobile professionals in leading positions, the article presents evidence from four countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden). Respondents reflect on their professional career as a process constituted through personal interactions while displaying their perceptions of restrictive national conditions that affect their professional success in this field.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/

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Date added: 11.15.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.18 MB Downloads: 278
Self-made lawyers? Pathways of socially mobile descendants of migrants from Turkey in Europe

Self-made lawyers? Pathways of socially mobile descendants of migrants from Turkey in Europe

Sara Rezai (2016) in the Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies.

This article is based on narratives of successful lawyers in Europe who are descendants of migrants from Turkey who participated in the ELITES project. Rezai discussses the main mechanisms
whereby social actors have a significant impact on the professional pathways of these upwardly mobile professionals.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com

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Date added: 11.15.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.16 MB Downloads: 366
Super-diversity vs. assimilation: how complex diversity in majority–minority cities challenges the assumptions of assimilation

Super-diversity vs. assimilation: how complex diversity in majority–minority cities challenges the assumptions of assimilation

Maurice Crul (2015) in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies

Children of immigrants nowadays no longer integrate into the majority group, but into a large amalgam of ethnic groups. Next to the diversification of ethnic groups, we see diversification within ethnic groups in the second and third generations. Crul focuses on intergenerational social mobility patterns given that they are key to existing grand theories of assimilation. He argues that super-diversity theory can only partially build an alternative theoretical perspective and that we also need to borrow from the intersectional approach and the integration context theory.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1061425

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Date added: 11.08.2016 Date modified: 01.08.2017 Filesize: 984.59 kB Downloads: 1642
Bonding or bridging? Professional network organizations of second-generation Turks in the Netherlands and France

Bonding or bridging? Professional network organizations of second-generation Turks in the Netherlands and France

Floris Vermeulen & Elif Keskiner 2016 Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies. 

This article analyses network organizations founded by descendants of Turkish migrants in the Netherlands and France. Vermeulen & Keskiner conclude that ethnicity is not the main element in the successful second generation's organizing process. Factors such as educational trajectories, professional ambitions, feelings of responsibility for other members and newly acquired socioeconomic status are the main reasons for this group to organize.

Also available in Open Access: http://www.tandfonline.com/

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Date added: 11.01.2016 Date modified: 02.13.2017 Filesize: 1.56 MB Downloads: 244
Student employment among descendants of Turkish migrants in Amsterdam and Strasbourg

Student employment among descendants of Turkish migrants in Amsterdam and Strasbourg

Elif Keskiner (Journal of Education and Work, 2016) compares and contrasts the nature of student employment experience in Amsterdam and Strasbourg among descendants of Turkish migrants, revealing the experience of student employment and the impact of working while studying on the educational careers and future labour market transitions. The article highlights the interaction between institutional structures and social class background as well as gender dynamics.

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Date added: 04.14.2016 Date modified: 04.14.2016 Filesize: 970.57 kB Downloads: 797
Special Issue Comparative Migration Studies

Special Issue Comparative Migration Studies

Now online: Family involvement and educational success of the children of immigrants in Europe. Comparative perspectives

Journal of Comparative Migration Studies (3) 2, edited by Rosita Fibbi, Maurice Crul, and Philipp Schnell 

This special issue brings together five comparative papers studying involvement practices in immigrant families and its links to educational success and upward mobility by their children. The contributions describe various ways of family involvement, highlight reasons for it in familial discourse and explain how it effects educational upward mobility. Taken together, they disentangle common processes and similarities for children of immigrants across different countries. 

Read all articles here: www.comparativemigrationstudies.com/series/FI

 

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Date added: 03.11.2016 Date modified: 03.11.2016 Filesize: 220.48 kB Downloads: 908
Getting Ahead: Educational and Occupational Trajectories of the ‘New’ Second-Generation in Switzerland

Getting Ahead: Educational and Occupational Trajectories of the ‘New’ Second-Generation in Switzerland

Philipp Schnell  & Rosita Fibbi (2015) JIMI    This paper examines the educational and occupational trajectories among second-generation immigrants of Turkish and Western-Balkan origin in Switzerland. Young adults of Turkish and Western Balkan origin are significantly more often upward mobile than the majority group, a pattern that is robust against a range of controls. Read more about this in the article.

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Date added: 08.26.2015 Date modified: 08.26.2015 Filesize: 698.12 kB Downloads: 1383
Discrimination of Second-Generation Professionals in Leadership Positions.

Discrimination of Second-Generation Professionals in Leadership Positions.

I. Waldring, M. Crul and H. Ghorashi (2015) in Social Inclusion Volume 3, 4, 38-49

This article, based on interviews from the Dutch Pathways to Success Project, investigates how Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch second-generation professionals in leadership positions experience and deal with subtle discrimination at work. We argue that subtle discrimination in organizations remains a reality for second-generation professionals in leadership positions.

Also available as free download in Social Inclusion

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Date added: 08.23.2015 Date modified: 08.23.2015 Filesize: 486.87 kB Downloads: 1423
The Fine Art of Boundary Sensitivity. Successful Second Generation Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands

The Fine Art of Boundary Sensitivity. Successful Second Generation Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands

Ismintha Waldring, Maurice Crul and Halleh Ghorashi 

in New Diversities Volume 16, No. 1, 2014 - Social Mobility and Identity Formation

In what ways do the highly educated second generation of Turkish and Moroccan descent in the Netherlands deal with the increasingly impermeable, bright boundaries in various fields in Dutch society, including the labour market? We find evidence that these individuals employ a strategy of sameness and difference throughout their careers to deal with societal and work-related boundaries. Their emphasis on professional sameness opens up ways to relate to and instil confidence among colleagues with a background of native parentage. They avoid giving up parts of their identity through assimilation by keeping their differences in place where it matters most to them. This juggling of sameness and difference seems to be an individual and situational balancing act, based on an awareness that boundaries exist, and a sensitivity towards dealing with them. 

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Date added: 12.16.2014 Date modified: 08.25.2015 Filesize: 275.32 kB Downloads: 2113
Social Mobility, Habitus and Identity Formation in the Turkish-German Second Generation

Social Mobility, Habitus and Identity Formation in the Turkish-German Second Generation

Jens Schneider and Christine Lang

in New Diversities Volume 16, No. 1, 2014 - Social Mobility and Identity Formation

Social mobility literature widely assumes that socially upward mobile individuals 'alienate' from their 'milieu of origin' while adopting the patterns of acting and thinking of the 'new milieu'. The most frequent underlying concepts are the 'habitus transformation' or even the 'habitus cleft', which presume that the acquisition of a new habitus necessarily involves moving away from the previous one. This article presents three contrasting case studies from a research project among socially upward mobile individuals of Turkish background in Germany to show that the static juxtaposition of 'either ... or' is too narrow. Most respondents maintain intensive relations with family and friends from their 'milieu of origin', while at the same time 'assimilating' to the expected habitus in their professional environments and high-ranking positions. This article suggests borrowing elements from Identity Theory – especially concepts such as hybridity and multiplicity – to show that transformations in individual habitus do not necessarily go along with relevant levels of 'alienation' in neither direction. As a consequence, the authors propose 'habitus diversification' as a more promising concept for including frequent bridging strategies and the active switching between 'habitual' codes and languages.

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Date added: 12.15.2014 Date modified: 12.16.2014 Filesize: 314.9 kB Downloads: 2597
Turning Disadvantage into Advantage: Achievement Narratives of Descendants of Migrants from Turkey in the Corporate Business Sector

Turning Disadvantage into Advantage: Achievement Narratives of Descendants of Migrants from Turkey in the Corporate Business Sector

Ali Konyali in New Diversities vol. 16, No. 1, 2014

While researchers have often studied descendants of migrants in terms of their educationaland occupational shortcomings, there is a lack of studies on an emerging group of professionals with exceptional achievements. Drawing on data collected through semi-structured, in-depthinterviews in Frankfurt am Main, Paris and Stockholm with business professionals whoseparents migrated from Turkey, this article explores how they present their stories within theframework of struggle and success, while they try to avoid victimization. 

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Date added: 12.09.2014 Date modified: 12.09.2014 Filesize: 415.04 kB Downloads: 1786
Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems: Access to Higher Education for Second-Generation Turks in Europe

Snakes and Ladders in Educational Systems: Access to Higher Education for Second-Generation Turks in Europe

Maurice Crul in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2013).
Based on the first international standardised survey on the second generation in Europe, TIES , Crul compares the school trajectories of youth from the same origin group (parents born in Turkey), with the same starting position (born in Europe) and the same socioeconomic status (parents with only modest educational credentials) in six European countries. The differences between countries are substantial. The opportunity to enter higher education is seven times greater in the highest-performing country than in the lowest. These differences can be explained by the institutional arrangements in education in interaction with the available family resources. The article highlights the importance of the oft-neglected national school context.

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Date added: 07.18.2013 Date modified: 07.18.2013 Filesize: 141.98 kB Downloads: 4891
Second-generation migrants: Europe and the United States

Second-generation migrants: Europe and the United States

Article by Maurice Crul and Jens Schneider in The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, Edited by Immanuel Ness © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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Date added: 06.26.2013 Date modified: 07.26.2013 Filesize: 566.39 kB Downloads: 3203
Success against the Odds

Success against the Odds

Philipp Schnell, Elif Keskiner & Maurice Crul (2013) Education Inquiry Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2013, pp. 125–147

By drawing on comparative analyses of successful second-generation Turks from disadvantaged family backgrounds in France and the Netherlands, this article examines pathways and mechanisms that lead to educational success against the backdrop of structural and familial disadvantages.

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Date added: 04.02.2013 Date modified: 08.25.2015 Filesize: 598.05 kB Downloads: 4721
Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

Comparative integration context theory: participation and belonging in new diverse European cities

Ethnic Racial Studies 2010, Maurice Crul and Jens Schneider. Drawing upon results from the TIES survey on the second generation in eight European countries the authors propose a new perspective on integration or assimilation. The proposed comparative integration context theory argues that participation in social organizations and belonging to local communities across European cities is strongly dependent on the integration context. Differences in integration contexts include institutional arrangements in education, the labour market, housing, religion and legislation.

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Date added: 06.26.2012 Date modified: 07.18.2013 Filesize: 161.03 kB Downloads: 3383