Bonding or bridging? Professional network organizations of second-generation Turks in the Netherlands and France

Floris Vermeulen & Elif Keskiner 2016 Special Issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies. 

This article analyses network organizations founded by descendants of Turkish migrants in the Netherlands and France. Vermeulen & Keskiner conclude that ethnicity is not the main element in the successful second generation's organizing process. Factors such as educational trajectories, professional ambitions, feelings of responsibility for other members and newly acquired socioeconomic status are the main reasons for this group to organize.

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